Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

  • Reagent preparation for nucleic acid extraction and PCR
  • Nucleic acid extraction from different sources
    (Blood, Tissues, Saliva, Skin, Flesh, Semen and other sources)
  • PCR reagent preparation calculations
  • PCR protocol, types of PCR and other consideration of PCR optimization
    (Multiplex PCR, Touchdown PCR, Nested PCR, ARMS PCR, Hotstart PCR, Colony PCR and other)
  • Real-Time-qPCR applications and data analysis
    (Concept of presence/absence experiment, Gene expression experiment, Genotyping assays, Primer/probe designing and selection of appropriate probes, available online sources for probe selection and websites, primer Express software usage, gene expression experimental design, absolute and relative quantification, Standard curve method, comparative Ct method/Livak Method)
  • Direct/Sanger sequencing and sample preparation
    (PCR amplicon precipitation, ExoSAP treatment, Primer dilutions)
  • Sequence data analysis
    (Usage of Sequencher software, Sequence editing and cleaning, BioEdit, Chromas Lite, CodonCode aligner, DnaSP)
  • Phylogenetics trees and dendograms contractions its analysis and interpretation
    (Concept of rooted and unrooted trees, Phylogenetic tree construction methods, e.g. neighbor joining, parsimony methods, distance methods, UPGMA,  outgroup organism, concept of leaves, nodes, common ancestors, branch length, bootstrapping, clade, taxa and other nitty-gritties)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS)
    (concept of high density microarray based genotyping chips, data generation and interpretation using PLINK data analysis toolset, usage of Haploview and R statistical software, concept of HapMap project)
  • Next Generation Sequencing (NGS): Whole genome sequence/RNASeq/Exome-Seq data generation and analysis
    (Concept of NGS platforms “NovaSeq, HiSeq, MiSeq)”, library preparation: TruSeq PCR-free, TruSeq nano DNA, Nextera DNA, Nextera DNA XT  library preparation kits, Library quantification and qualification: qPCR or Qubit/bioanalyzer, WGS analysis: concept of Bcl, FASTQ, SAM/Bam files,       Aligning softwares/tools: BWA, Bowtie2, Map, Stampy, Novoalign, FastQC and Picard tool, Variant calling softwares/tools: SAMtools mpileup, GATK, Visualization softwares/tools: Integrative genomic viewer, UCSC genome browser, RNASeq Mapping program/tools: TopHat, STAR, Exome-Seq: same software as with WGS analysis)
  • NGS based diagnostic panels for different diseases
    (Tumor syndromes: Colorectal cancer, polyposis, nonpopyposis, Breast cancer, Ovarian cancers, prostate cancer, Gastric cancer, Pancreatic cancer,  Pheochromocytomas, Paragangliomas, Blood and immune disorders, Cardiovascular diseases, metabolic and brain development   disorders,        Ciliopathies, Connective tissues diseases, Eye diseases, Hearing loss, Kidney diseases, Liver diseases, Mitochondriopathies, Neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases, Skeletal disorders, Skin diseases)